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Table 4 Descriptive statistics

From: Investor sentiments and stock markets during the COVID-19 pandemic

  CD test LLC CIPS
CAR 63.343 [0.000] − 50.662*** − 6.190***
LVOL 90.453 [0.000] − 23.631*** − 6.111***
COV-19 95.119 [0.000] − 20.351*** − 3.457***
VAC 88.836 [0.000] − 6.400*** − 3.942***
CASES 41.924 [0.000] − 14.782*** − 4.673***
FX 45.474 [0.000] − 39.250*** − 5.733***
GOLD 78.545 [0.000] − 35.455*** − 6.128***
BOND 62.666 [0.000] − 1.790** − 6.355***
  1. The numbers in square brackets are p-values. *** indicates stationarity at the 1% significance level