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Table 7 Summary of Short-run causality

From: Nexus between financial innovation and economic growth in South Asia: evidence from ARDL and nonlinear ARDL approaches

Causality Bangladesh India Pakistan Sri Lanka
Y VS FI Y ←→ FI Y ←→ FI Y ←→ FI Y ←→ FI
Y VS TO Y → TO Y ← TO Y → TO  
Y vs GCF Y ← GCF Y → GCF Y ← GCF Y ←→ GCF
Y vs. DCP Y ← DCP    Y → DCP
FI VS TO   FI → TO   FI ← TO
FI vs GCF FI ←→ GCF FI → GCF FI ←→ GCF FI → GCF
FI vs. DCP FI → DCP FI ← DCP   
TO vs GCF TO → GCF TO ← GCF TO → GCF TO ← GCF
TO vs. DCP   TO → DCP   
GCF vs. DCP    GCF → DCP GCF → DCP
  1. Note: “→” for unidirectional causality, “←➔” for Bidirectional causality, and “-” for no causality