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Table 1 Malicious attacks to blockchain and defensive measures

From: Are blockchains immune to all malicious attacks?

Malicious Attack Definition Defensive & Preventive Measures
Double Spending An individual makes more than one payment using one body of funds. The complexity of the mining process
Record Hacking Records in the ledger are modified or fraudulent transactions are inserted into the ledger. Distributed consensus
51% Attack A single miner node with more computational resources (51%) than the rest of the network nodes dominates the verification and approval of transactions. Detection techniques; wide adoption of the blockchain technology
Identity Theft The private key of an individual is stolen. Identify and reputation blockchains
Illegal Activities Parties transact illegal goods or commit money laundering. Detection techniques; laws and regulations
System Hacking The programming codes and systems that implement a blockchain are compromised. Robust systems and advanced intrusion detection methods