Skip to main content

Table 1 Malicious attacks to blockchain and defensive measures

From: Are blockchains immune to all malicious attacks?

Malicious Attack


Defensive & Preventive Measures

Double Spending

An individual makes more than one payment using one body of funds.

The complexity of the mining process

Record Hacking

Records in the ledger are modified or fraudulent transactions are inserted into the ledger.

Distributed consensus

51% Attack

A single miner node with more computational resources (51%) than the rest of the network nodes dominates the verification and approval of transactions.

Detection techniques; wide adoption of the blockchain technology

Identity Theft

The private key of an individual is stolen.

Identify and reputation blockchains

Illegal Activities

Parties transact illegal goods or commit money laundering.

Detection techniques; laws and regulations

System Hacking

The programming codes and systems that implement a blockchain are compromised.

Robust systems and advanced intrusion detection methods